Defining Presence

Matthew Lombard & Matthew T. Jones

This interactive figure is a supplement to Lombard, M., & Jones, M. T. (2015). Defining presence. In M. Lombard, F. Biocca, W.A. Ijsselsteijn, J. Freeman, & R. Schaevitz (Editors), Immersed in Media: Telepresence Theory, Measurement and Technology. London: Springer. (Information here)

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Remote spatial telepresence Remote spatial telepresence Remote spatial telepresence Virtual spatial telepresence Mode of copresence Affective, behavioral engagement Behavioral engagement Pereceived access to intelligence Perceived psychological closeness Mutual understanding Perceived co-location Perceived existence, realism of others Perceived salience of others Parasocial interaction Transportation Perceived in acknowledging environment Feeling, sense, state of "being there" in mediated environment Perceived co-location Perceived existense/realism of others Mutual sensory awareness Para-presence Copresence: Sensory awareness of another person Feeling, sense, state of being in a place Proximity of another person Mode of copresence Social actor within medium Social realism Perceptual realism Medium as social actor Social actor within medium SOCIAL TELEPRESENCE PERCEIVED REALISM TELEPRESENCE ENGAGEMENT TELEPRESENCE SOCIAL TELEPRESENCE SPATIAL TELEPRESENCE CULTURAL PRESENCE/TELEPRESENCE SOCIAL PRESENCE/TELEPRESENCE SPATIAL PRESENCE SOCIAL PRESENCE Inaccurate: No technology Inaccurate perception of technology Accurate: Technology Accurate perception of no technology or inaccurate perception of technology Accurate: No technology Experience based only on external stimuli (i.e., not internally generated/controlled stimuli such as daydreaming Experience based on external and/or internally generated stimuli External stimuli only Entity (objective) Mode of communication (medium/technology) (objective) Subjective property of an individual person Entity (objective) Object or person (objective) Person or people (objective) Mode of communication (objective) TELEPRESENCE (technology involved) PRESENCE or TELEPRESENCE (technology or not) PRESENCE (no technology) What aspect of phenomenon is of interest? How is technology perceived? What is the source of the stimuli? What is the phenomenon a property of (and is the property objective or subjective)? Is technology involved in the phenomenon?