Presence and Time Estimation


Satoko Kurita

Master’s of Arts candidate

Indiana University, Bloomington

Department of Telecommunication



This study will examine whether an estimation of duration can be a valid measurement of presence. Currently, one of the key questions for measuring presence is related to the relationship between the experience of presence and time duration estimation. Waterworth & Waterworth (2001) argue that when people feel higher presence, they tend to overestimate time duration because the experience of presence reduces abstract reasoning. The prediction is based on Watherworth and Waterworth's model of virtual experience. Ijsselsteijin et al. (2001) critiqued their argument and claimed that time duration tends to be underestimated during the experience of presence; in fact, they provide some empirical evidence for that hypothesis. So, the question is, “who is right?” Is there a negative or positive correlation between presence and time estimation? The paper will examine the different theoretical arguments about the relationship between presence and duration estimation, and then will test it empirically.